[ Epub ] ➞ Islamic Mystical Poetry: Sufi Verse from the early Mystics to Rumi Author Mahmood Jamal – Dcrjservices.co.uk


10 thoughts on “Islamic Mystical Poetry: Sufi Verse from the early Mystics to Rumi

  1. says:

    This is a beautiful compilation of Sufi poets including Rumi of course, but also lesser known Sufi poets such as Yunus Emre who is a folk hero in Turkey, where he lived just as a Rumi had, and was a noble jurist like Rumi before he became a poet , Mansur Hallaj, who was burned at the stake for saying the words, I am the Truth, and Rabia Basri, an 8th century female Sufi poet who is quoted above She was the first Sufi who said that God should be loved for His own sake and not out of fear For This is a beautiful compilation of Sufi poets including Rumi of course, but also lesser known Sufi poets such as Yunus Emre who is a folk hero in Turkey, where he lived just as a Rumi had, and was a noble jurist like Rumi before he became a poet , Mansur Hallaj, who was burned at the stake for saying the words, I am the Truth, and Rabia Basri, an 8th century female Sufi poet who is quoted above She was the first Sufi who said that God should be loved for His own sake and not out of fear For those of you spellbound by the poetry of Rumi, I would explore so many of the other true Sufi poets with this anthology Each Sufi poet is given a wonderful introduction also Inmy soulthere is a temple, a shrine,a mosque, a churchwhere I kneel.Prayer should bring us to an altar where no walls or names exist Rabia Basri, 9th century Sufi poet


  2. says:

    RABIA BASRIMANSUR HALLAJWhen the stallion of loneliness rides over you And the scream of despair swallows Hope, Take the armour of humility in your left hand And sword of tears in your right hand And be wary of your ego And careful of the hidden revenge And when you have to migrate in darkness Take shelter under the torch of purity Tell the Beloved You see my broken state, Forgive me before our destined meeting O my Love, be not separate from me, Do not abandon me before fruitionABU SAID IBN RABIA BASRIMANSUR HALLAJWhen the stallion of loneliness rides over you And the scream of despair swallows Hope, Take the armour of humility in your left hand And sword of tears in your right hand And be wary of your ego And careful of the hidden revenge And when you have to migrate in darkness Take shelter under the torch of purity Tell the Beloved You see my broken state, Forgive me before our destined meeting O my Love, be not separate from me, Do not abandon me before fruitionABU SAID IBN ABIL KHAIRIn search of martyrdom the Ghazis go To fight Faith s battles do they then not know That martyred lovers higher rank, as slain By hand of Friend, and not by hand of Foe Let no one of Thy boundless Grace despair Thine own elect shall ever upward fare The mote, if once illumined by Thy Sun, The brightness of a thousand suns shall shareSHEIKH ABDULLAH ANSARI OF HERATO Lord We appear like Desperate lovers, And in our hearts We are sleep soiled Our breasts full of fire Our eyes full of water Sometimes we burn In the fire of our hearts Sometimes we are drowned in tearsAHMAD JAMEach who has seen Your beauty fine Utters honestly, I have seen the Divine Everywhere Your lovers wait for grace, Remove Your veil, reveal Your face I am in the ocean and an ocean is in me This is the experience of one who can see He that leaps into the river of Unity, He speaks of union with his Beloved s beautySANAI GHAZNAVISo long as this world exists, I do not want the pain of Love, But I love Love and cannot break the vows of Love So long as the story of Love and lovers adorns this world My name shall be written boldly in the book of Love The name of drunkard from the puritans I ve got, Still I love and am obedient to the command of Love Their heart is caught in the snare of the Beloved s curls, Those who ride with beauties in the field of Love I will play in this field of Love till eternity I have trapped my heart in the curls of Love In this world, my Love is the reason for goodness Since He is the reason for goodness, I became the goodness of Love NIZAMI GANJAVIOne night desperate Majnun prayed tearfully, O Lord of mine who has abandoned me, Why hast Thou Majnun called me Why hast Thou made a lover of Leila of me Thou hast made me a pillow of wild thorns, Made me roam day and night without a home What dost Thou want from my imprisonment O Lord of mine, listen to my plea The Lord replied, O lost man, With Leila s love I have your heart filled Your Love of Leila is my will The Beauty of Leila that you see Is just another reflection of meFARIDUDDIN ATTARO You who have revealed My hidden sorrow to the world, Who am I that I received Your fragrance in my soul I am stricken by sorrow Cast a glance this way, For it s You who know My secret, and with my heart You play O Love of mine, In the hope of seeing You I roam In the valley of separation, Eternally, I ve made my home It s You who know the cure Of my pain I ve reached the limit, give me The balm of Your love again Attar s soul is dishevelled Like Your dark hair Bring him together, make him wholeAnd save his scattered weary soul UMAR IBN AL FARIDGive me excess of love and so increase me In marvelling at Thee and mercy have Upon a heart for Thee by passion seared And when I ask of Thee that I may see Thee Even as Thou art, in Thy reality, Say not, Thou shalt not see, but let me see Heart, thou didst promise patience in love of themMOHYUDDIN IBN ARABITheir abodes have become decayed, but desire of them is ever new in my heart and decayeth not These tears are shed over their ruined dwellings, but souls are ever melted at the memory of them Through love of them I called out behind their riding camels, O ye who are rich in beauty, here am I, a beggar I have rolled my cheek in the dust in tender and passionate affection then, by the true love which I owe to you, do not make hopeless One who is drowned in his tears and burned in the fire of sorrow with no respite 6 O thou who wouldst kindle a fire, be not hasty Here is the fire of passion Go and take of it JALALUDDIN RUMIThrough Love, bitterness becomes sweet Through Love, bronze turns into gold Through Love, dregs turn to tasteful wine Through Love, pain turns into a balm Through Love, the thorns become the rose Through Love, vinegar turns to wine Through Love, the cross becomes a throne Through Love, the burden becomes a fortune Through Love, the prison becomes a garden Through Love, the garden becomes an oven Through Love, the fire turns to light Through Love, the demon becomes a fairy Through Love, the stone becomes butter Without Love, wax turns into steel Through Love, sorrow becomes happiness Through Love, the follower becomes the leader Through Love, the sting becomes honey Through Love, the lion becomes a mouse Through Love, illness becomes health Through Love, a curse becomes a blessing Through Love, the thorn becomes a needle Through Love, the home is lit up Through Love, the dead man becomes alive Through Love, the king becomes a slaveIRAQIWhen I kissed the earth in supplication A cry came forth from the earth You have stained my face With this supplication of lies O unfortunate I that did not have the fate Of your enemy s life, As your friend I bow my head To feel the blow of your knife When I visited the gambling den I saw kind and truthful men When I visited the mosque and temple I got nothing but deceitSA DI SHIRAZII sit on the throne of the heart That is the style of my poverty I am dust on my Beloved s path That is my elevated state No need to visit the mosque for me Your eyebrow is a prayer arch for me Sa di, why this pilgrim s garb Why, indeed, this ritual of hajj Look at my Beloved s face That is the true worshipper s placeMAHMUD SHABISTARIBeing is the sea, speech is the shore, The shells are letters, the pearls knowledge of the heart In every wave it casts up a thousand royal pearls Of traditions and holy sayings and texts Every moment a thousand waves rise out of it, Yet it never becomes less by one drop Knowledge has its being from that sea, The coverings of its pearls are voice and letters Since mysteries are here shown in an allegory, It is necessary to have recourse to illustrations I have heard that in the month Nisan The pearl oysters rise to the surface of the sea of Uman From the lowest depths of the sea they come up And rest on the surface with opened mouths The mist is lifted up from the sea, And descends in rain at the command of The Truth There fall some drops into each shell s mouth, And each mouth is shut as by a hundred bonds.Then each shell descends into the depths with full heart, And each drop of rain becomes a pearl The diver goes down to the depths of the sea, And thence brings up the glittering pearls The shore is your body, the sea is Being, The mist Grace, the rain knowledge of the Names The diver of this mighty sea is human reason, Who holds a hundred pearls wrapped in his cloth The heart is to knowledge as a vessel, The shells of knowledge of the heart are voice and letters SULTAN VELEDYUNUS EMRE AMIR KHUSROW DEHLAVII asked, What s bright as the Moon My beautiful face, was the answer.I said, What s sweet as sugar My speech, was the answer What is the way of Lovers I asked The way of loyalty, was the answer I said, Don t be so cruel to me It s my job to behave thus, was the answer What is death for Lovers Separation from me, was the answer What is the cure for life s ills To gaze upon my face, was the answer What is spring, what autumn Only my changing beauty, was the answer Who is the envy of the gazelle My swift gait, was the answer Are you a fairy or a houri I am the Lord of Beauty, was the answer Khusrow is helpless, I said He is my devotee, was the answerASHIQ PASHAHAFIZ SHIRAZIMAGHRIBISHAH NIMATULLAHKing and beggar are one, are one The hungry and sated are one, are one Sorrowful I am and drink the dregs The dregs, sorrow and cure, are one, are one There is none but One in this world Speak not of two, God is one, is One I have seen a thousand mirrors, But the Beloved s face is one, is one We are stricken by one who s fair and tall, But the stricken and the illness are one, are one A drop, the sea, the wave and the four elements Are without doubt in our sight but One, but One.QASIMUL ANWARKABIRThe Moon shines in my body, but my blind eyes cannot see it The Moon is within me, and so is the Sun The unstruck drum of Eternity is sounded within me but my deaf ears cannot hear it So long as man clamours for the I and the Mine , his works are as naught When all love of the I and the Mine is dead, then the work of the Lord is done For work has no other aim than the getting of knowledge When that comes, then work is put away The flower blooms for the fruit when the fruit comes, the flower withers The musk is in the deer, but it seeks it not within itself it wanders in quest of grass All jewels are made of the same gold We give them different names Some call it prayer, others Namaz Some say Hindu, some say Muslim He reads the Veda, he the Qur an He is a Mullah, he a pandit, The vessels are of the same earth made We give them different names Says Kabir They are misguided all God is far away from all Who waste their time Who argue and name call The river And the wave are the same When it rises up, it s water When it subsides, it s water Otherwise it cannot be You call it wave, you see, But other than water it cannot be The Creator is the world And the world the CreatorABDUR RAHMAN JAMII am so drunk that wine drips from my eyes My heart so burns that I can smell its roasting If my Beloved comes unveiled at midnight, An ageing puritan will rush out of the mosque I saw your face at dawn and missed my prayer What use is supplication when the Sun has risen If a drop of Jami s pain falls into the river The fish will jump out burning with painSARMADSULTAN BAHUI am no accomplished scholar, Nor a judge, nor doctor of law My heart neither hell desires, Nor my soul to heaven aspires I do not fast as required, Nor am I the pure, praying kind All I want is union with GodI care not for the false or true God is not up there, my friends, Nor in the Kaaba does He reside He is not in learned books, Nor inside the minaret He hides He is not in Ganga, Jamuna, Nor He in Benaras abides Don t get lost in searching for Him Find yourself a truthful guide BABA BULLEH SHAHSHAH ABDUL LATIF BHITTAISHAH NIAZMIAN MUHAMMAD BAKSH


  3. says:

    A thoughtful book that starts with an intelligent overview of Sufi poetry, its forms and its images.The selections and translations vary in interest and subtlety Some of the simpler poems do not rise above devotions hymns The longer poems articulate muchcomplex relationships between poetry, love, and the Divine There are many translations of Sufi poetry on the market and these can range from the literal and dead to the creative and fantastical, to the point where they are written in t A thoughtful book that starts with an intelligent overview of Sufi poetry, its forms and its images.The selections and translations vary in interest and subtlety Some of the simpler poems do not rise above devotions hymns The longer poems articulate muchcomplex relationships between poetry, love, and the Divine There are many translations of Sufi poetry on the market and these can range from the literal and dead to the creative and fantastical, to the point where they are written in the spirit of Sufism and have no relation to the originals Not so much divinely drunk as poetically pissed The internet abounds with such objects Rumi has authored many works he never imagined whilst pursuing Shams al Din The translations in Jamal s book are readable and fairly accurate An example would be this Beat not your drum that none can hear Plant bravely your banner in the desert s heart.My son, it behoves not to beat the drum under a blanket Place your flag like a brave warrior in the midst of the plain.The prosaic translation lacks life Then again, a pity that none can hear is substituted for the objective and lively image of under a blanket The use of familiar objects it typical of Rumi Sometimes there are subtle changes Rumi s original Persian imagines being the bezel in the lover s ring , a container, not the jewel , the flash gemstone, as stated in the English translation Generally, Islamic Mystical Poetryoffers cogent and sensitive translations that preserve the mood of the originals.A readable and useful source book for ideas and images A kaleidoscope of comparisons that fit together like Islamic, patterned tiles


  4. says:

    Buku ini mengambil masa kira kira enam bulan untuk disusuri sambil disela karya puisi mistik sufi yang lain tetapi perjalanannya tetap memukau dan memikat meski sering diserkup kebingungan Masakan tidak buku ini merentangi puisi yang ditiup melalui seruling tokoh besar dalam ranah sufi dari Rabiatul Adawiah yang merintis makna cinta ketika tasawuf sebelumnya lebih dikenali dengan makna takwa hakiki seperti yang hidup dalam hayat Hassan al Basri hinggalah kepada ranah sufi yang subur di tana Buku ini mengambil masa kira kira enam bulan untuk disusuri sambil disela karya puisi mistik sufi yang lain tetapi perjalanannya tetap memukau dan memikat meski sering diserkup kebingungan Masakan tidak buku ini merentangi puisi yang ditiup melalui seruling tokoh besar dalam ranah sufi dari Rabiatul Adawiah yang merintis makna cinta ketika tasawuf sebelumnya lebih dikenali dengan makna takwa hakiki seperti yang hidup dalam hayat Hassan al Basri hinggalah kepada ranah sufi yang subur di tanah Parsi, Turki dan Hind yang kini mengisi wilayah Pakistan, India, Kashmir dan Bangladesh.Puisi dalam bentuk syair, mathnawi dan ghazal yang disusun oleh Mahmood Jamal ini sebenarnya terjemahan daripada ramai sarjana, pengarang dan penterjemah, sekali gus menjadikan setiap karya yang difahami akan berdepan dengan variasi cara penterjemahan serta interpretasi mereka Hal ini sebenarnya memberikan cabaran tetapi sekaligus kenikmatan tersendiri dalam melayari lautan isyq cinta hakiki yang pengalaman kerohanian itu cuba diungkapkan dalam bahasa yang dalam.Kita mungkin biasa dengan tokoh seperti Mansur Hallaj, Sanai, Nizami, Attar, Ibn Arabi, Maulana Rumi, Iraqi, Sa adi, Yunus Emre, Hafiz dan Abdul Rahman Jami tetapi buku ini memungkinkan kita melihat dari celah pintu mistik yang dibuka untuk berkenalan dengan Mahmud Shabistari, Ashiq Pasha, Qasimul Anwar, Sarmad, Babu Bulleh Shah, Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai dan Shah Niaz Bagaimanapun di sebalik tradisi dengan latar wilayah yang luas dari Basrah hingga Tanah Punjab, karya mereka memiliki nafas yang sama cinta yang bertiup dari seruling diri yang melagukan melodi kerinduan terhadap tanah yang terpisah.Membaca buku ini sekali bacaan saja tidak cukup kerana lautan hakikat kewujudan bukan saja terlalu luas, bahkan ia terlalu dalam untuk dilayari atau diselami dengan bekalan diri yang terlalu tipis Justeru karya yang terkandung dalam buku ini adalah karya yang perlu disusuri sepanjang kita menelusuri jalan hayat yang ada


  5. says:

    Beautiful words from inspiring souls I was already familiar with Rumi, but I discovered favorites such as Maghribi, Mansur Hallaj, Mahmud Shabistan and Rabia Basri I bought this at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City and after gazing at the beautiful calligraphy, arabesque and old copies of Attars poetry with amazing illustrations, reading these verses addedaesthetic pleasure to my experience These are the type of verses that dig into you deeper and deeper after repetition, Beautiful words from inspiring souls I was already familiar with Rumi, but I discovered favorites such as Maghribi, Mansur Hallaj, Mahmud Shabistan and Rabia Basri I bought this at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City and after gazing at the beautiful calligraphy, arabesque and old copies of Attars poetry with amazing illustrations, reading these verses addedaesthetic pleasure to my experience These are the type of verses that dig into you deeper and deeper after repetition, until they reveal transparency I can only wonder how sublime they must sound in the original Arabic, but these translations are splendid


  6. says:

    Really fascinating to read Some poets I wanted to read everything of theirs aloudother poets I only skimmed, but I found it all to be really interesting Glad the editor of this collection added biographies of each of the poets, footnotes where possible and included an introduction about the main concepts and structure of Sufi verse.


  7. says:

    I m always hesitant when I find a collection of sacred poetry put out by a classics publisher like Penguin They can be excellent references, but I expect their translations to be stiff and rather academic So I was pleasantly surprised by Penguin s Islamic Mystical Poetry while some of Mahmood Jamal s translations bring the mind to appreciative, stunned silence, most don t read like masterpieces of the art Even so, they have a direct, modern fluidity that is inviting to the tongue His rhyme I m always hesitant when I find a collection of sacred poetry put out by a classics publisher like Penguin They can be excellent references, but I expect their translations to be stiff and rather academic So I was pleasantly surprised by Penguin s Islamic Mystical Poetry while some of Mahmood Jamal s translations bring the mind to appreciative, stunned silence, most don t read like masterpieces of the art Even so, they have a direct, modern fluidity that is inviting to the tongue His rhyme, in places, can sound too simple, occasionally evoking sing song, rather than poetic revelation, but that s a minor criticism, given how readable these poems are These are not dusty translations only your great grandfather could love.Where this collection really shines is in the breadth of poets gathered together within its pages, those well known in the West, and many less well known Rabia, Hallaj, ibn Arabi, Rumi, Iraqi, Shabistari, Kabir, Baba Bulleh Shah, Umar ibn al Farid, Yunus Emre, and manyThis is an excellent sampling of Sufi poetry from Africa to Afghanistan.Other general collections of Sufi poetry, like The Drunken Universe and Love s Alchemy might havearresting translations, but Penguin s Islamic Mystical Poetry is highly recommended for its broad range of Sufi poets, some hard to find in English translation, as well as for it s approachable translations.This one belongs on your bookshelf.I witnessed my Maker with my heart s eye.I asked, Who are You He answered, You For You one cannot ask, Where Because where is Where for You You do not pass through the imaginationOr else we ll know where You are.You are He who is everywhereYet You are nowhere Where are You In my annihilation is my annihilation s annihilationAnd You are found in my annihilation Mansur al HallajTable of ContentsRabia BasriMansur HallajAbu Said ibn Abil KhairSheikh Abdullah Ansari of HeratAhmad JamSanai GhasnaviNizami GanjaviFariduddin AttarUmar ibn al FaridMohyuddin ibn ArabiJalaluddin RumiIraqiSa di ShiraziMahmud ShabistariSultan VeledYunus EmreAmir Khusrow DehlaviAshiq PashaHaviz ShiraziMaghribiShah NimatullahQasimul AnwarKabirAbdur Rahman JamiSarmadSultan BahuBaba Bulleh ShahShah Abdul Latif BhittaiShah NiazMian Muhammad Baksh


  8. says:

    Skirting on the edge of orthodox Islam, and often beyond it, the great Sufi poets of the medieval and early modern eras produced both beautiful verse and an inspiring record of humanity s search after God They were obsessed with the idea that God is love, they loved Him so dearly that they sometimes felt united with their Beloved, and they despaired that this feeling was so fleeting Persecuted by other Muslims, Sufi mystics often moved to the Balkans, where state power was weaker and the multi Skirting on the edge of orthodox Islam, and often beyond it, the great Sufi poets of the medieval and early modern eras produced both beautiful verse and an inspiring record of humanity s search after God They were obsessed with the idea that God is love, they loved Him so dearly that they sometimes felt united with their Beloved, and they despaired that this feeling was so fleeting Persecuted by other Muslims, Sufi mystics often moved to the Balkans, where state power was weaker and the multicultural mix of Christians, Jews, and Muslims wasamenable to their shocking, sometimes heretical, ways of talking about their spirituality The language and experiences of the Sufi mystics have a lot in common with that of medieval Christians, especially with Spanish mystics like St Teresa of vila 1515 1582 or St John of the Cross 1542 1591 Read my full review here


  9. says:

    Some things, such as this, cannot be translated.


  10. says:

    Love is most illumined by silence Jalaluddin Rumi Knower and known are one and the same Mahmud Shabistari So when I speak I speak of only YouAnd when silent, I yearn for You Rabia Basri There is none other in this desert, but only I,Tell me what is this echo and noise Mahmud Shabistari Time is one imaginary point, and that ever passing away,You have named it the fleeting river Mahmud Shabistari The night is but an empty black potIf you haven t tasted the sweetness offered by nig Love is most illumined by silence Jalaluddin Rumi Knower and known are one and the same Mahmud Shabistari So when I speak I speak of only YouAnd when silent, I yearn for You Rabia Basri There is none other in this desert, but only I,Tell me what is this echo and noise Mahmud Shabistari Time is one imaginary point, and that ever passing away,You have named it the fleeting river Mahmud Shabistari The night is but an empty black potIf you haven t tasted the sweetness offered by night Jalaluddin Rumi I call You and You call me Did I say I am YouOr did You speak through me Mansur Hallaj I am in the ocean and an ocean is in me Ahmad Jam You have infused my beingThrough and through Rabia Basri You are dressed in my meaning Mansur Hallaj When I come near You, fear drives me awayBut Love deep in my soul makes me reckless Mansur Hallaj Being is the sea, speech is the shore,The shells are letters, the pearls knowledge of the heart Mahmud Shabistari Immersed in pain, lost, amazed and dazedI move from wilderness to wilderness Mansur Hallaj My soul is mingled with Thee, dissolved in Thee,A soul to cherish as it has Thy perfume Jalaluddin Rumi I turn to You in longing and sorrow You for whom my heart is caught in the talonsOf a flying bird Mansur Hallaj Enter the tumultuous nightAnd from its ocean gather gifts unnamed Jalaluddin Rumi I lost myself in finding YouTill you annihilated me in You Mansur Hallaj The two, light and darkness, cannot be united.Like the past, the future month and year exist not,What is there but this one point of the present Mahmud Shabistari The night of separation, whether long or short,In it, my friend, only the longing for You Mansur Hallaj My fleeting life has come and gone A wind that blows and passes by.I feel it has been all too brief,Just like the blinking of an eye Yunus Emrei You were the hidden secret of my longing,Hidden deep within my conscience, deeper than a dream Mansur Hallaj It s true that Love is full of painBut it is also the solace of the Pure Abdur Rahman Jami You have learnt so muchAnd read a thousand books.Have you ever read your Self You have gone to mosque and temple.Have you ever visited your soul Baba Bulleh Shah Everything is but illusion, like a mirage I know I do not exist, yet the doubt persists Shah Niaz In His loveThe heart hath life Longing for Him, the soulHath victory That heart which seems to loveThe fair ones of this world, loves Him alone Abdur Rahman Jami Like a flute I sing the song of separation from You,Yet it s true that You are near to me at each instant Abdur Rahman Jami


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Islamic Mystical Poetry: Sufi Verse from the early Mystics to Rumi summary pdf Islamic Mystical Poetry: Sufi Verse from the early Mystics to Rumi, summary chapter 2 Islamic Mystical Poetry: Sufi Verse from the early Mystics to Rumi, sparknotes Islamic Mystical Poetry: Sufi Verse from the early Mystics to Rumi, Islamic Mystical Poetry: Sufi Verse from the early Mystics to Rumi 6aa792e Written From The Ninth To The Twentieth Century, These Poems Represent The Peak Of Islamic Mystical Writing, From Rabia Basri To Mian Mohammad Baksh Reflecting Both Private Devotional Love And The Attempt To Attain Union With God And Become Absorbed Into The Divine, Many Poems In This Edition Are Imbued With The Symbols And Metaphors That Develop Many Of The Central Ideas Of Sufism The Lover, The Beloved, The Wine, And The Tavern While Others Are Personal And Echo The Poet S Battle To Leave Earthly Love Behind.These Translations Capture The Passion Of The Original Poetry And Are Accompanied By An Introduction On Sufism And The Common Themes Apparent In The Works This Edition Also Includes Suggested Further Reading.

  • Paperback
  • 336 pages
  • Islamic Mystical Poetry: Sufi Verse from the early Mystics to Rumi
  • Mahmood Jamal
  • English
  • 15 September 2019
  • 0140424733

About the Author: Mahmood Jamal

Is a well-known author, some of his books are a fascination for readers like in the Islamic Mystical Poetry: Sufi Verse from the early Mystics to Rumi book, this is one of the most wanted Mahmood Jamal author readers around the world.